Myndtec Inc

Improving Movement, Improving Lives

Clinican Evidence

The efficacy of MyndMoveTM therapy is supported by numerous clinical studies, including randomized controlled trials in both stroke and spinal cord injury populations.

MyndMove is the culmination of years of laboratory and clinical research by Dr. Milos Popovic Toronto Rehab Chair in Spinal Cord Injury Research at the Toronto Rehab Institute - Unverisity Health Network, and professor at the Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering at the University of Toronto.

Three randomized control studies, two looking at SCI and one looking at stroke patients, examined the effect of FES therapy using the MyndMove protocols. These studies found that patients who underwent 40 one-hour long sessions, 3-5 times per week over an 8-12 week period, demonstrated significant and lasting recovery of voluntary arm and hand movement. Patients participating in these studies represented those with some of the most severe deficits in motor function.

Studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of MyndMove protocols as an FES therapy to improve hand and arm function in:

  • individuals with C3-C7 incomplete SCI
  • individuals with severe hemiplegia due to stroke
  • children (aged 6-11) who have experienced a stroke

Studies evaluated improved hand and arm function based on:

  • Self-Care Functional Independence Measure (FIM) scores
  • Spinal Cord Independence Measures (SCIM) scores
  • Fugl-Meyer Assessment of Motor Recovery after stroke (FMA) scores
Video's highlighting patients participating in this research have been prepared by UHN and the Rehabilitation Engineering Laboratory.

Ongoing Studies

An ongoing open-label study and an upcoming randomized control study will assess the clinical and health-economic benefits of MyndMove.

Current studies using MyndMove are posted on https:/clinicaltrials.gov.

Stroke Rehabilitation

Studies have demonstrated that FES therapy using MyndMove protocols can lead to lasting recovery of upper extremity function in individuals who have experienced stroke, including:

  • children
  • acute stroke
  • severe chronic hemiplegia due to stroke

Individuals experiencing upper extremity paralysis due to stroke who underwent one hour sessions of FES therapy 5 days a week for 12-16 weeks improved significantly more than patients undergoing conventional occupational therapy for the same timeframe in:

  • object manipulation
  • Barthel Index
  • Self-care Functional Independence Measure (pictured)
  • Upper extremity Fugl-Meyer scores

Self-care Functional Independence Measure (FIM) measures an individual’s ability to feed, bathe, dress, groom, and toilet themselves after stroke.  Minimum scores are 6, which indicates full dependence, maximium scores are 42 which indicates full independence.



SCI Rehabilitation

Studies have demonstrated that FES therapy using MyndMove protocols can lead to lasting recovery of upper extremity function in individuals with SCI, including:

  • chronic incomplete SCI
  • subacute incomplete SCI
  • C3-C7 SCI

Individuals experiencing upper extremity paralysis due to SCI who underwent 40 hours of FES therapy over 8 weeks improved significantly more than patients undergoing 40 hours of conventional occupation therapy in Self-care SCIM scores.

Self-Care Spinal Cord Independence Measure (SCIM) measures an individual’s ability to feed, bathe, dress, and groom themselves after SCI.

Minimum scores are 0 indicating full dependence, maximum score are 20 indicating full independence.

These patients also maintained gains made in voluntary motor control of the affected limbs in long-term follow up.

Studies Referenced


Chetan, P. Clinician’s Commentary on Kawashima et al. Physiotherapy Canada. 2011:65:1-29.

Kapadia, N, Popovic, M. Functional Electrical Stimulation Therapy for Grasping in Spinal Cord Injury: An Overview. Topics in Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation. 2011:17:1-70.

Kapaida, N, Shaghayegh, B, Popovic, M. Influence of Different Rehabilitation Therapy Models on Patient Outcomes: Hand Function Therapy in Individuals with Incomplete SCI. The Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine. 2014:0:0-1.

Kapadia N, Zivanovic V, Furlan J, Craven B.C, McGillivray C, Popovic M. Functional Electrical Stimulation Therapy for Grasping in Traumatic Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury: Randomized Control Trial. Artif Organs. 2011:35(3):212-216.

Kapadia, N, Zivanovic, V, Popovic, M. Restoring Voluntary Grasping Function in Induviduals with Incomplete Chronic Spinal Cord Injury: Pilot Study. Topics in Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation. 2013:19:4-279.

Kawashima N., Popvic M, Zivanovic V. Effect of Intensive FES Therapy on Upper-Limb Mtor Recovery After Stroke. Physiotherapy Canada. 2013:65(1):20-28.

Popovic, M, Kapadia, N, Zivanovic, V, Furlan, J, Craven, C, McGillivray, C. Functional Electrical Stimulation Therapy of Voluntary Grasping Versus only Conventional Rehabilitation for Patients with Subacute Incomplete Tetraplegia: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair. 2011:25:5-433.

Popovic, M, Thrasher, T, Adams, M, Takes, V, Zivanovic, V, Tonack, M. Functional Electrical Therapy: Retraining Grasping in Spinal Cord Injury. Spinal Cord. 2006:44-143.

Trasher T, Zivanovic V, Mcllroy W, Popvic M. Rehabilitation of Reaching and Grasping Function in Severe Hemiplegic Patients Using Functional Electrical Stimulation Therapy. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair. 2008:22:706-13.